To improve the accuracy of parts in mechanical machining, it is often necessary to employ two methods: reducing error sources and implementing error compensation. Using only one method may not meet the required precision. Below are the two methods explained along with their applications.
SOLUTION 1 : RUDUCING ERROR SOURCES
1. Reduce geometric errors of CNC machine tools: CNC machine tools may have various geometric errors during operation, such as errors in guide rails and screw transmissions. To minimize these errors, the following measures can be taken:
• Regularly maintain and upkeep the machine tool, including cleaning, lubrication, and adjustment.
• Ensure that the rigidity and geometric accuracy of the CNC machine tool meet the specified standards.
• Perform precise calibration and positioning of the CNC machine tool.
2. Reduce thermal deformation errors: Thermal deformation is a common source of error in mechanical machining. To reduce thermal deformation errors, the following methods can be considered:
• Control the temperature stability of the machine tool to avoid temperature changes affecting the machine tool and workpiece.
• Use materials with reduced thermal deformation, such as alloys with good thermal stability.
• Implement cooling measures during the machining process, such as spray cooling or local cooling.
3. Minimize tracking errors of the servo system: Tracking errors in the servo system can lead to a decrease in machining accuracy. Here are some methods to reduce tracking errors in the servo system:
• Use high-precision servo motors and drivers.
• Adjust the parameters of the servo system to optimize its response speed and stability.
• Regularly calibrate the servo system to ensure its accuracy and reliability.
4. Reduce errors caused by vibration and insufficient rigidity: Vibration and insufficient rigidity can affect the machining accuracy of parts. Consider the following recommendations to reduce these errors:
• Improve the structural rigidity of the machine tool, such as increasing its weight or strengthening the bed rigidity.
• Implement vibration damping measures, such as vibration isolation feet or damping pads.
1. Hardware compensation: Hardware compensation involves adjusting or changing the dimensions and positions of mechanical components of the CNC machine tool to reduce or offset errors. Here are some common hardware compensation methods:
• Use precision adjustment screws and guide rails for fine-tuning during the machining process.
• Install compensation devices, such as shim washers or adjustable supports.
• Utilize high-precision measuring tools and equipment to detect and calibrate machine tool errors promptly.
2. Software compensation: Software compensation is a real-time dynamic compensation method achieved by forming a closed-loop or semi-closed-loop servo control system. The specific steps include:
• Use sensors to detect the actual position in real-time during the machining process and provide feedback data to the CNC system.
• Compare the actual position with the desired position, calculate the difference, and output it to the servo system for motion control.
Software compensation has the advantages of flexibility, high accuracy, and cost-effectiveness, without the need to modify the mechanical structure of the CNC machine tool. Compared to hardware compensation, software compensation is more flexible and advantageous. However, in practical applications, it is usually necessary to consider specific machining requirements and machine conditions and choose the appropriate method or adopt a comprehensive approach to achieve the best machining accuracy.
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